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011; Kenderdine, 2011), and fasting for an extended period of time (Gardiner, 2007; Russell, 2004) to boost cash for charity. Why are these painful ffortful fundraisers so common Comprehension the things that encourage charitable providing has massive implications for enhancing human (and nonhuman) welfare,.011; Kenderdine, 2011), and fasting for an prolonged interval (Gardiner, 2007; Russell, 200