Ubule disruptionBackground Apicularen A is a potent cytotoxic macrolide isolated from the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces [1] that induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines such as the murine RAW 264.7 leukemia macrophage line and the human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line [2-4]. In* Correspondence: kyulim@cnu.ac.kr; bdhwang@cnu.ac.kr 1 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine,